The interview taken at #JLF2017 Jaipur Literature Festival by Malin Mendel Westberg on freedom of speech. The story in the news bulletin starts at 32:20 minutes.
Friends in Chennai, The Hindu Lit For Life #LFL2017 is right around the corner!
Arefa Tehsin has been shortlisted for The Hindu Young World-Goodbooks Best Author Award 2017 for her book Wild in the Backyard. Her picture book The Elephant Bird was read at 3200+ locations in India from the slums to the Presidential library on the International Literacy Day, 2016 and translated in 25 languages by communities. She is the author of several fiction and non-fiction books on wildlife. She was appointed as the Honorary Wildlife Warden of Udaipur and has pursued nature conservation through her writings and columns. Arefa is also an avid traveller and contributes travel pieces for various publications. @ATehsin
Lament for a littered ‘lake’
The messenger bird in the 15th century epic poem- Selalihini Sandeshaya (Grackle Letter) composed by the monk scholar Ven. Thotagamuwe Sri Rahula Thera pays homage to the fauna and flora of the Kotte Kingdom as it soars into the blue skies. The legend says that the grackle carried a letter to God Vishnu who reigned over Dondra to intervene in finding a suitable marriage partner for the eldest daughter of the then Kotte monarch- King Parakramabahu VI. The grackle’s celebration of the Diyawanna Oya and the natural landscape which surrounds it holds testimony to the rich biodiversity the locale claimed since the times of our ancient monarchs.
Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte and its surroundings are still known as a hub of water bodies, cocooned in marshy swamps with abundant wildlife. The placard erected by the Department of Wildlife at the turn to Parliament Road, speaks for the rich biodiversity among which are endemic species as well. Added to the natural water bodies is the network of canals – a colonial legacy from the Dutch. The canal network facilitated not only the transportation of goods, but acted as a buffer against floods. Over centuries, the buffer zones besides these canals connecting to other internal water bodies have been encroached by illegal settlements, completely oblivious to the original purpose the colonial masters espoused. To make matters worse, these canals have been reduced to garbage disposal pits, not only raping the waters but destroying the marine life.
The Heen Ela flowing through Rajagiriya is an integral part of Colombo’s canal system dating back to the Dutch era. Turning into Lake Drive, opposite McDonald’s, Rajagiriya, one can take a ride parallel to Heen Ela, but the waters stagnate and emanate an odour today. The Heen Ela which falls onto the water retention area (bluntly called the lake) from which the road derives its name ‘Lake Drive’ is or rather was once a home to many species of animals dependent on this water body: Herons, storks, kingfishers.
Now the banks of the Heen Ela water retention area is an eyesore, a haven for the dengue mosquito with a cocktail of garbage including plastic, arrack bottles, rubber slippers and old tyres, fished out of the waters, reminding one of the prophetic words of the Red Indian Chief Seattle; ‘continue to contaminate your bed and one night you will suffocate in your own waste..’
The ravaging of this lowland area and the water retention body found at the end of Lake Drive has become an issue of concern for several ‘nature loving’ and civic conscious residents who alerted the Sunday Times. Arefa Tehsin, ex-hony. Wildlife Warden of the Udaipur District, Rajasthan and daughter of the conservationist Dr. Raza Tehsin, who is presently based here, laments the loss of habitat in Lake Drive, particularly in the water front. “The lake (water retention area) is a complete mess here with industrial and municipal contamination largely being the cause of this. The stench is unbearable at times,” says Arefa who lobbies equally for the community and the wildlife so dependent on the water body. She bemoans the loss of habitat for several creatures including monitor lizards, turtles and even the regular visitor to the compound- the crocodile.
According to Arefa, sewage from the houses of the area goes “unchecked and unregulated” to this water body and the canal and even effluents from a nearby industry are released to the canal periodically. “It is a big health hazard not only for the residents but also for the workers who have to wade in the sewage and clean the canal daily and a threat to the animal life,” she adds. Arefa also maintains that the road being built up through Lake Drive, connecting to Kirimandala Mawatha in Nawala has resulted in “mindless destruction of trees and mangroves”, displacing many animals. “We recently had a land monitor whose eyes and mouth had been severed by a crane or a passing vehicle and we had it sent to the Dehiwela Zoo hospital,” she says, questioning if an Environmental Impact Assessment of the road project which runs across one of the last remaining environmentally sensitive zones in the heart of Colombo had been done.
Another resident, Hiran Cooray asserts that a sustainable solution should be found as a way forward. “It is not fair to expect the authorities to be solely responsible for the irresponsible behaviour of the culprits. Nor is it fair to point fingers at only one cross section of the community.
The want of the hour is awareness, a more effective garbage disposal system and a deterrent mechanism in place for the pollution of this magnitude.” Mr. Cooray said that despite the great labours taken by the cleaners who are compelled to wade through this polluted water and manually pull the garbage with tractors, a colossal amount of non-degradable waste is discharged to the waterways. “We cannot be blind to the fact that these workers are also at a huge health risk and have to bear the brunt of insensitivity of the community.”
Richard Mundy had been living on Lake Drive with his wife for the past 14 years and is concerned over possible dengue threats that could be triggered by coconut shells, rubber tyres and plastic containers fished out of the canal. “These were precisely the articles which we were told not to leave lying around during dengue prevention campaigns.” He also recalls seeing a ‘regular boat’ which would collect water samples to be tested for water quality as they moved to the area, which however had gradually stopped coming after a few years. “The water then appeared to be cleaner and certainly had less solid waste floating in it,” says Richard who suspects untreated sewage in the waters today, judging by the foul smelling oily scum which floats in it. “It is obvious that real efforts are being made to maintain the waterways and surrounding areas, but prevention of further pollution must be a major concern as the waterways and surrounding areas support a lot of wildlife and a thriving population of fish.”
Speaking to the Sunday Times, Chairman, Sri Lanka Land Reclamation and Development Corporation (SLLRDC), Asela Iddawela noted that the prime challenge for the SLLRDC which is responsible for canal management, is winning over the pollutants. “When walking further interior in this wetland, we can see the remnants of what people have eaten and drunk- there is plastic and polythene galore and our challenge is to convince the polluter to adopt correct means of disposal.”
Despite the Heen Ela water retention being cleaned regularly by SLLRDC personnel with administrative assistance provided by the SL Navy and Civil Defence Force, the mechanism of manual cleaning cannot be sustained, points out the SLLRDC Chairman. The cleaning personnel are provided with personal protection safe gear to guard themselves against possible skin diseases, says Mr. Iddawela who adds that they are quite susceptible to such diseases as chemicals found in the polluted water could be lethal.
It is learnt from the canal cleaning staff of the SLLRDC that no amount of cleaning which is regularly done will answer as long as pollutants keep on soaring. “We keep on pulling all this non-degradable wear from the waters but the garbage is continuously thrown,” said one of the supervisors. The waste unearthed from the wetland is presently taken to the Meethotamulla garbage dump. A colossal amount of funds is annually allocated by the SLLRDC for the management of canals coming under its purview. According to the SLLRDC figures, Rs. 470 million had been spent in 2016 while another 350 million is allotted for 2017.
Community awareness, targeting the next generation is already initiated through their community-supervision officers by means of education programmes and keeping canals clean as part of good house-keeping methods. A dialogue with the Castle Street Maternity Hospital for scientific disposal of clinical waste in a waste park in Muthurajawela is also on the cards. It’s further learnt that this proposed Waste Park will facilitate the modern means of clinical waste disposal from the National Hospital as well. The SLLRDC Chairman also pointed out that a cost-effective waste disposal system aligned with the municipal councils of Colombo and Kotte is also envisaged.
The Heen Ela water retention area on Lake Drive which was preserved under the Great Colombo Flood Control and Environment Project,is a lowland as well, explains Mr.Iddawela. “Although the SLLRDC and several other authorities including the Urban Development Authority (UDA) and Provincial Road Development Authority (PRDA) are blamed for constructing a roadway (which connects to the Nawala Road) which is a hindrance to the residential area we need to remind that the road runs through the canal reservation on which road construction is authorized. Nevertheless we are conscious of safety and convenience of the residents, the reason why a considerable buffer area is planned alongside the road for parking of vehicles,” he elaborated.
The road project is funded by the RDA, the PRDA and SLLRDC are jointly responsible for the construction. “While SLLRDC is responsible for the gabion walls (for the strengthening of the canal bank), PRDA is entrusted with the remaining road construction.” Under the Megapolis 2015-2030 Plan, the new roadway is aimed at reducing traffic congestion.
In response to the alleged charges of ‘filling up of the wetland’ due to road construction by some of the residents in the area, Deputy General Manager (Wetland Management), SLLRDC, Dr (Eng). N.S. Wijerathne said there was no filling up of the wetland. “We are only strengthening the canal bank along Heen Elawhich is inevitable when a project of this nature takes place.” As to whether an Environmental Impact Assessment was done prior to construction of the roadway, Dr.Wjierathne responded that such assessment was not done as the wetland area is not affected by construction. “This however does not mean that we are on a rampage felling trees. We are mindful of the disturbance caused to the biodiversity, the reason why we have root-balled certain trees and replanted them in the Biodiversity Park in Thalawatugoda (adjacent to Ape Gama) and planning another replanting project once the road construction is over.”
Dr.Wijerathne also noted that in terms of rampant water pollution in Colombo’s internal water bodies which eventually flow to Kelani river, the situation is alarming. Although non-degradable waste cannot be underpinned, the chemicals mixed in water are the worst feared pollutants, he said. “Recent studies on the Kelani River basin reveal that pesticides and chemicals are the deadliest pollutants,” reminds Dr.Wijerathne who urges for more responsible community involvement in protecting the water bodies.
|Killing nature, killing us
By Arefa Tehsin
While looking for a house in Colombo, I fell in love. It was with the small lake made by the convergence of canals, tucked away at the fag end of Rajagiriya’s Lake Drive. A green patch, the lung of this suburb and house to an astounding variety of critters, big and small. But love often results in heartburn I’m told and that’s what happened.
One of the best things about this lake is the peace. Not silence, of course. The roll call of birds is the first thing you hear in the morning. As the day progresses, pelicans let out a guttural cry now as they waddle by clumsily. The jungle crows caw trying to steal some sticks from the garden broom for their nest. The squirrels let out a sharp chick-chick-chick with jerks of their tail if someone as much as eyes their famous nut. The mynahs go about looking like bandits but when they open their mouths they are nothing but songsters. The tui-tui crying parakeet smooches his girl as if there is no tomorrow. (Our current protectors of morality will faint at this grossly impolite behaviour!). The purple moorhens scold in a grandmotherly voice if you go too close. Our local Mozart, koel, reaches hysterical pitches trying to impress a girl who just eyes him critically. A Brahminy kite lets out a scream from the skies just for kicks.
And there are the silent ones too. Like the water monitor lizard who tries to approach an egret waiting for fish with clumsy stealth. Like the gentle fireflies who rise at night like little twinkling faeries. A reality show of animal lives happening all around you (drama, squabble, sex, haggling, luring, deceiving, hunting and being hunted), if you have the patience to watch long hours.
A porcupine was spotted in the area. Some claimed of seeing the resident croc too. This was all rosy, but the heartburn came soon enough. When reality struck. When pungent waste, which looks toxic, came floating by for the first time. And then again. And again. When water hyacinth, that thrives in dirty waters, spread and took control of the lake.
“So what’s new?” the older residents of the area shrugged their shoulders. There has been a constant war that wages between the workers who clean this lake and this water hyacinth and floating waste.
During the recent floods, when Lake Drive was flooded and our garden submerged in water, the biggest concern was the rancid water entering our pump. All the vegetable plants in our garden wilted and died with the first touch of that water. I wonder how the myriad of water and land birds and animals are surviving on these polluted waters.
Big sewage pipes (and small underground ones) constantly empty the house waste in the canals and lake. An oil refinery, I’m told, discharges its waste in the canal periodically. We may stuff our noses when the stench assaults our senses, or shut down the water pump when the garden floods. I wonder what the yogic grey heron, who meditates in water the whole day, is supposed to do. Or the kingfishers, waterhens, cormorants, river turns, night herons, snake birds, barbets, babblers, orioles or the other migratory birds who seek home in this water body every year are supposed to do? We are pushing the remaining wildlife out of our cities. And how!
What is direly needed is for the authorities to take stern steps to stop the dumping of industrial and house waste in these waters. We are harming ourselves as much as the environment. When I sit with my freshly baked fish, sometimes my eyes wander to the fishing boat in the lake casting its net. I realise it then. When you throw shit about, it invariably ends up on your table.
( The writer is an author, columnist and ex-hon. Wildlife Warden – Udaipur, India)
Dec has been festivities. Jan is a celebration of literature. First my sessions at THE HINDU’S LIT FOR LIFE in Chennai and then at #JaipurLiteratureFestival, in Jaipur, of course
My Sessions and Introductions at the upcoming JAIPUR LITERATURE FESTIVAL
20th Jan – Do Tigers Drink Blood and Other Mysteries of Nature
21st Jan – Not Yet! #NandanaSen introduced by Arefa Tehsin
23rd Jan – Rewilding a Rocky Desert: #PradipKrishen introduced by Arefa Tehsin
Please do drop in if you’re around!
Writer & Conservationist
Arefa Tehsin has been shortlisted for The Hindu Young World-Goodbooks Best Author Award 2017 for her book Wild in the Backyard. Her picture book The Elephant Bird was read at over 3000 locations across India from the slums to the Presidential Library on International Literacy Day 2016. It has been translated into 25 languages. She is also the author of several fiction and nonfiction books on wildlife. She was appointed as the Honorary Wildlife Warden of Udaipur and has relentlessly pursued nature conservation through her writings and columns. Tehsin is also an avid traveller and contributes travel pieces for various publications.
The Hindu Lit for Life includes an exclusive literary festival for kids
The Hindu Lit for Life festival (January 14-16 at Sir Mutha Venkatasubba Rao Concert Hall, Chennai) celebrates books, literature, authors and creativity. The seventh edition promises something extra — a children’s literary festival, where little ones can appreciate the magic of storytelling through a variety of workshops. “ The Hindu has consistently catered to the interests of children through its publications such as Young World and The Hindu – In School , believing that youngsters need to be exposed to the magic of books and the practice of reading outside classrooms. With this children’s festival, we hope to build on that,” says Nirmala Lakshman, festival director and director of The Hindu group of publications.
Children between the ages of five and 12 can look forward to sessions on storytelling, theatre and creative writing, a science laboratory, Zumba session, an open-air library and more, which will be organised at two themed venues — Enchanted Land and Magic Burrow. Here’s a glimpse of what to expect:
Stories on stage
The only thing better than reading a story is watching it being enacted. City-based theatre group Crea Shakthi will organise a workshop titled Stories on Stage. “All our stories are becoming 140 characters. Kids have wonderful ideas, but they are not able to dig deeper,” explains Dushyanth Gunashekar, creative head of Crea Shakthi. “The session will begin with an interactive performance that will help children come up with their own ideas as to how they’d like to take the story forward. This will start them off on a process of questioning things and becoming curious about the world,” he adds.
January 14, noon to 1 p.m. (age group 5-8) and January 16, 10 a.m. to 11 a.m. (age group 9-12)
Let’s make a story
At a time when most children are exposed to stories through Disney animations and books written by western authors, Vikram Sridhar plans to keep it local. “I’m a Ramu-Shamu rather than a Harry Potter, so I will focus on localised stories (based in Alwarpet or Teynampet) based on reality,” says the 33-year-old Bangalore-based storyteller. He will perform a story for the younger children and help them develop a tale of their own; the older ones will get to dabble with theatre.
Have Fun with Stories: January 14, 9.45 a.m. to 10.45 a.m. (age group 9-12); Let’s Make a Story: 11 a.m. to noon (age group 5-8), and noon to 1 p.m. (age group 9-12); Also sign up for Bangalore-based writer Andaleeb Wajid’s creative writing workshop, The Never-Ending Story, on January 14, 10 a.m. to 11 a.m. (age group 5-8), and 11 a.m. to noon (age group 9-12).
Give children crayons and they will tell you stories. In his workshop, Bangalore-based illustrator Vinayak Varma will help them express themselves better. “I will first help them to imagine a character using words and then I’ll draw it. Then I’ll get them to do the same. This will give them an insight into how one goes from descriptions to an image,” shares the 34-year-old. “And if I can get them to extend the idea into something they can create at home or school later, that will be great.”
January 14, 2 p.m. to 3 p.m. (age group 5-8).
Arefa Tehsin believes that a curiosity to know about the wild must be instilled in children when they are young. Especially since we are now in the “midst of the sixth mass extinction after the Ice Age”. “Children, especially in cities, are almost completely alienated from Nature. The bond with the wild needs to be re-established, not by preaching, but by using an interesting medium like stories,” says the novelist and ex-Honorary Wildlife Warden, Udaipur.
Her workshops will be structured as talks. The first, Snake – a Foe or a Friend?, will discuss the vilified creatures, while the second, Jungle Book, will discuss interesting facts like whether an Elephant Bird really exists.
Jungle Book: January 14, 2 p.m. to 3 p.m. (age group 9-12); Snake – a Foe or a Friend?, on January 15, 10 a.m. to 11 a.m. (age group 9-12)
Fun with Science
“We want kids to say ‘Science is awesome’,” says Supreetha Gonsalves of ScienceUtsav. Expect the workshop to be conducted in the form of a magic show, with experiments called Chemical Chameleons (involving changing colours) and Hovering Balls (dealing with aerodynamics). There are several themes, including Magic Potions and Khatron ke Khiladi, where children will see a few dangerous experiments. “We love kids more than science, so yes, safety is our priority,” she assures us.
January 15, 10 a.m. to 11 a.m. (age group 5-8) and 2 p.m. to 3 p.m. (age group 9-12).
To register log on to http://www.youngworldclub.com/childrensfest. The fee is Rs. 1,000.
“The bond with the wild needs to be re-established, not by preaching, but by using an interesting medium like stories”
Spoilt for CHOICE
The Hindu Young World -Goodbooks Awards 2017 will be announced on January 16, 2017 at The Lady Andal School in Chennai during The Hindu Lit for life. Read what the shortlisted authors and illustrators have to say about making it this far.
The Hindu Young World-Goodbooks Awards is for children’s books published in India. It was introduced to promote excellence in children’s writing and illustration. The award aims to acknowledge innovative publishing trends, and recognise children’s literature as an independent and important field.
This is the second year the award will be given and the winners will be felicitated at The Hindu Lit for Life festival which will take place in Chennai on January 14, 15 and 16. This year, the awards will be given in two categories — Best Author and Best Illustrator. Each award will carry a cash prize of Rs. 50,000, a trophy and a citation.
The Hindu Young World -Goodbooks Award is the first in India to recognise different genres in children’s publishing and to honour authors and illustrators for their invaluable contribution. The Hindu Lit for Life, showcases the best of Indian literature and now provides a platform to promote excellence in Indian children’s books.
The Goodbooks website is a repository for Indian children’s books and provides a space to all those engaged with children to discourse on children’s literature.
More terrors of the DEEP
The ocean depths hold secrets and horrors that can send a shiver down your back. Last month, we mentioned a few and now here are some more.
You must have heard of the Komodo Dragon. I’ve seen one in a zoo and it is a stud! Ask a water creature how terrifying it finds a Komodo Dragon to be and it’ll huff and say, “Hah! It’s nothing but an upmarket lizard!” Most land creatures we find petrifying will make water creatures giggle. In the first part of this article, we spoke about a few terrors of the deep. Let’s take a peek at a few more here.
The locals who live around the Congo River Basin believe that the evil spirit mbenga enters the river and attacks people. Their imagination is not too far fetched. The monstrous Goliath Tigerfish, that sports 32 razor sharp, dagger-like teeth, and which can grow up to five ft and 70 kgs lives up to its moniker. This fish can attack and tear up small crocodiles and is a formidable killing machine. It is supposed to be one of the hardest game fishes for anglers on planet Earth. Match that.
With the body of a snake and massive jaws, the gulper eel is one of the most bizarre looking fishes of the deep. It is also known as the pelican eel and can swallow prey much larger than its size through its pelican-like big mouth. We haven’t been able to study much of its habits as it lives in the great, dark depths of the seas. It doesn’t have man-eating livers, but this sea-serpent-meets-Jaws is enough to give one nightmares.
This slow swimming shark, also known as a “living fossil” has a super fast jaw mechanism. Its long snout hides its needle sharp teeth and a jaw that can be thrust forward at a speed three meters per second in a dramatic, heart stopping motion! Once it has caught its yummy morsel of fish, it fits its protruding jaw back under its flat snout. This rare deep-sea creature with a lineage of 125 million years is one jaw dropping fish!
Enjoying life? Bah! Anglerfish has reasons to be cross. It lives in the dark, unfriendly depths of the ocean and beats the most hideous of creatures with its looks. A few of the 200+ kinds of anglerfish live in shallow waters too. Its crescent shaped mouth bear fang-like teeth. It is called an angler because the ladies carry a ‘fishing rod’ like appendage with a luminescent fleshy tip to lure the prey. Wouldn’t you be attracted to light in the fathomless dark? The lady anglerfish’s witchy looks hold unending fascination for the much smaller gent. Latching himself to the body of the lady with his teeth, he slowly dissolves — all of his body but his testes. Now that’s taking “two-bodies, one soul” to another level! A female carries four to five males on her body.
There are enough and more absurd beasts of water that humans know of, and many, many more that still remain to be discovered from the endless depths. They can scare even the brave-hearts out of their skins, not to mention those of us who find even the pimples on our cheeks terrifying.
The writer is an author of fiction and non-fiction books and Ex-Hon. Wildlife Warden, Udaipur